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Bernese Mountain dog

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1. Origin

The origins of this breed can be traced to 2000 years ago, when the Romans invaded Switzerland, then served to dogs herding the animals, but as guard dogs. Romanian dogs, mastiff-type, were probably crossed with domestic dogs herding, which were well adapted to the conditions harsh climate of the Swiss Alps.

Shepherds of Bern were then used to tow carts that carried and fabrics or groceries from one village to another. In 1800, this breed almost disappeared due to increased interest in Saint Bernard and lack of interest in initiating a program for proper growth and breeding these dogs.

This situation continued until early last century, when Swiss Kennel Herr Franz Schertenlieb began in ancient carols places that had created the breed and found dogs past isolated valleys of the Alps.

He recorded some success, especially in Durrbcah region in Bern. He was helped by Professor Albert Heim, of the University of Zurich. Thanks to them, Bernese returned to the fore as the race. Initially, these dogs were known as the "Gelbbackler" (translated, yellow cheeks), or simply "Durrabachler".

Today, because they come from Berne entire region, not only Durrbach, in 1908, the club already established race, renamed the Bernese Mountain Dog. Since then, this breed has a great demand in Switzerland, in Europe but also in America, where he was officially recognized in 1936.

Canada other countries follow suit and keep the breed name, and officially recognizes that in 1970. However, these dogs are still fairly rare in England.

2. Food Bernese Mountain dog

A well-balanced diet means a diet consisting of nutrient quality is seen in dog's health. With its help retain complete animal fur, organs and healthy tissue and allows the immune system to remain on guard.

Breeder or seller from whom you purchase your dog should recommend a diet for your dog. If you want a healthy diet for your dog you should know that in general the protein content is relatively low, and the moderate fat.

A diet too high in fat, especially animal with u nnivel low activity and obesity causes loose stools. The Bernese is a dog which may be predisposed to obesity without daily exercise.

Corn is not recommended but not prohibited. In large quantities can cause bloating or loose stools. Chocolate or sweets in any form. If you want to be pampered puppy go to the nearest specialty store for a few dollars you can buy them sweets for dogs.

It is recommended that it fed at least 2-3 meals a day. 5 to 15 minutes after eating necessarily break for siesta and fresh water ad libitum.

3. Description Bernese Mountain dog

Dogs are strong, sturdy, solid frame, strong shoulders, with balanced gait, long step. They reach adult size by the age of 15 months. Talia is between 58-66 cm in females, weighing 32-46 kg and 64-70mc males weighing 37-54 kg.

The head is strong, with wide skull, with a slight crease in his forehead and a well-defined stop. The jaws are strong, with full bite, scissor. The eyes are almond shaped, dark brown color. The ears are medium in size, set on high, brought forward slightly in attention. The neck is strong, muscular, medium length, strong and oblique shoulders caught by a withers deleted.

The trunk of this dog is compact, not very long, with broad chest and back strong, straight. Forelegs should be straight, muscular. Hind legs are strong, broad, muscular, with well angulated stifle. The feet are short, compact, round. The tail is bushy, reaching below the hocks, high alert, but never above the line cord.

Glossy coat color is always black, with white muzzle and white spot on the forehead, also white chest, paws and tail tip like. A vivid color amber or brown separating whites from black and white as on the legs and cheeks.

4. Behavior Bernese Mountain dog

Bernese shepherd dogs are very pleasant, as companions, intelligent, eager to please man, relatively easy to train. They are lifelong friends are very loyal dog owner and may have trouble adjusting to a new owner after 18 months.

Dogs are self confident, alert, very good guards. They are less friendly towards strangers. Not overly aggressive or shy.

There are dogs with a pleasant personality, who like to be included in all aspects of family life, it is very pleasant companions. Dogs are affectionate, patient and very good with children, which will protect them if necessary.

They need to be around people and be given attention. Will bark to alert of visitors, but then will sit quietly in place. Chicken socialized with other pets, including cats, will accept them without any problems. Sometimes they can be dominant with other dogs.

5. Training Bernese Mountain dog

Training can be done easily, as long as the dogs are young.

If they will not train at an early age, these dogs become violent, unmanageable that will have the impression that they can do only what they want.

Dogs are sensitive, so the training should be done gently.

6. Characteristics Bernese Mountain dog

Daily brushing is needed or if not, at least once a week due to rains and long robe. Consideration should be given daily brushing especially during moulting.

Bathing or cleaning is needed coat with dry shampoo. The average life of this dog is 6-8 years, it is declining in recent years, from 10-12 years. American Club of Bernese undertook a study on the health of the breed, on a total of 1332 dogs.

Their average life was 7.2 years. Cancer is one of the main reasons Bernese mortality throughout the world, so many dogs of this breed are dying at a younger age of 3-4 years.

7. Health Bernese Mountain dog

One of the most popular and discussed disease is hip dysplasia. This in some cases can occur easily, without lameness, but in other cases, can completely debilitate the dog became apparent at age 6 months and up. Studies have shown that, unfortunately, dogs free from dysplasia can produce dysplastic offspring.

Hip dysplasia can be diagnosed by performing pelvic radiographs, specific to be performed by a qualified veterinarian and specialist on this issue.

Another shoulder dysplasia disease is the term used to describe several disorders that affect the dog's shoulder joint. Clinical signs of disease, lameness of varying degrees that can occur from the age of 5 months, or even adulthood. Diagnosis is also based on radiological examination.

Osteochondritis dissecans is a disease of the articular cartilage, which can lead to arthritic changes in the joints of the dog. Panosteita is a disease of the long bones of the limbs, which usually affects pups 5-8 months to 2 years.

The disease causes pain and lameness, which can be intermittent, chronic and can move from one foot to another. Diagnosis is also based on radiological examination.

Ectropion and entropion (eyelid turning inward, toward the outside of the eyeball) is an ophthalmic disorder, also affecting the breed genetic determinism. Different types of cataracts has been reported quite frequently in the Bernese case.

Gastric dilation and torsion occur frequently in this dog, conformation due to chest and abdominal cavity.

Allergies, especially the nature of the food are also among characteristic Bernese diseases. Can occur relatively frequently hypothyroidism, Von Willebrand disease (coagulopathy, which is manifested by bleeding unmanageable if wounds or surgery), stenosis sub-aortic autoimmune disease (which may result in meningitis aseptic difficult to diagnose and the Treaty).

Cancer is perhaps the biggest challenge for both veterinarians and for breeders of these dogs. Bernese if there are at least two types of cancer that are transmitted genetically, namely mast cell or mast cell cancer and malignant histiocytoma. A study in 2000 showing that 50% of mortalities were due to cancer.

8. Pictures Bernese Mountain dog

9. Other dog breeds

10. Bibliography

http://1pies.pl/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/berne%C5%84czyk-Berner-Sennenhund-Bernese-Mountain-Dog-pasterski-Berne%C5%84ski-111.jpg

http://www.animale.ro/caini/ciobanesc-de-berna

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